University of Oxford

History Faculty

Your Location:

The History Aptitude Test

IMPORTANT INFORMATION about the University of Oxford’s History Aptitude Test

The Colleges of Oxford University have introduced a History Aptitude Test (HAT) for use in the selection of candidates for all degree courses involving History. This test, which aims to examine the skills and potentialities required for the study of History at university, gives us an objective basis for comparing candidates from different backgrounds, including mature applicants and those from different countries. It is designed to be challenging, in order to differentiate effectively between the most able applicants for university courses, including those who may have achieved or can be expected to achieve the highest possible grades in their examinations.

The Faculty of History is working in partnership with Admissions Testing Service (formerly Cambridge Assessments) to administer the History Aptitude Test. As in the previous 3 years,  in addition to their application to the University, candidates will need to be registered for the History Aptitude Test (HAT) by 5pm BST on Thursday 13th October 2016 via Admissions Testing Service's secure Entries Extranet.  Further information will be available on Admissions Testing Service's admissions tests

Please see the PDF documents below and our new HAT video (link) for details of how and when to register candidates


Introducing the new HAT video: A 90-second guide to the History Admissions Test

Amendment to the format of the HAT Paper and Mark Scheme (announced 9 September 2015)

This year for the first time the HAT paper will have four questions. The final one, Question Four, is ONLY for History and Economics applicants. Applicants for History and the other joint schools with History should ONLY answer questions 1, 2 and 3. Applicants for History and Economics should answer questions 1, 3 and 4. History and Economics Applicants must answer Question 4 INSTEAD OF Question 2. See the Specimen Paper below. Please note that the use of calculators is not permitted for Question 4.

Amendment to the format of the HAT Paper and Mark Scheme (announced 3 September 2014)

Following a review of recent candidate performance, the History Faculty has decided to modify the format of the HAT slightly. We have renumbered the HAT paper questions so that what was previously Question 1c is now Question 2, and what was previously Question 2 is now Question 3. The total number of questions and weighting of the marks remain unchanged. We will also be using a less prescriptive marking scheme from 2014, in order to allow markers to reward candidates' independence of thought.

A new specimen paper and marking scheme reflecting these changes have been made available below (please see the 'Specimen and Past Papers' section).

Amendment to the weighting of marks in the History Aptitude Test (announced 26th June 2012)

Following a review of recent candidate performance, the History Faculty decided to make a small change to the weighting of marks allocated to each question in the HAT. In order to reward the creative engagement of candidates with  question two, the Faculty ruled that from Admissions 2012 the paper will allocate only 30 marks for question 1c (instead of 40), and will increase the marks available for question two to 40 marks (up from 30 in previous years). The form of the questions will not change, but candidates will be advised to spend a little extra time on question two. A new specimen paper has been placed on the Faculty website to illustrate this small amendment; the HAT paper 2012 also has this format and is now online. 

What is the nature of the test?

The HAT is a two-hour test, which requires candidates to read two extracts and answer a total of four questions about them. One of the extracts will be from a work of History; candidates will be asked questions to test their comprehension of the arguments and ideas in it, their capacity to apply those ideas to historical situations they know about, and their ability to think and make judgments about the extract as a piece of historical writing. The other extract will be from a primary source, and candidates will be asked to offer thoughtful interpretations of its content without knowing anything about its context.

The HAT is a test of skills, not substantive historical knowledge. It is designed so that candidates should find it equally challenging, regardless of what period(s) they have studied or what school examinations they are taking.


The test has three elements: a series of questions based on a short piece of historical writing; a short essay; and a single question, based on a primary source. The duration of the test is two hours. Candidates are advised to spend about 40 minutes on reading the texts, thinking about them and planning their answers. The rest of the time they should spend on writing. Guidance is given about the form and length of each answer. HAT papers from 2005 onwards have one less question than the original specimen paper and the 2004 paper, to allow candidates more reading and thinking time.

§  Question One  This section comprises two questions and is worth 30/100 marks:

  •  Definition Exercise: Understanding and defining terms drawn from the text. Relates to careful and critical reading; precision in the handling of concepts; precision, clarity, and facility of writing. (10/100 marks)
  • Explanation Exercise: Analysing and explaining terms drawn from the text. Relates to: careful and critical reading; analytical approach; precision in the handling of concepts; precision, clarity, and facility of writing. (20/100 marks)

§  Question Two  This section comprises one question and is worth 30/100 marks

  • Essay Exercise: Applying in a concept/hypothesis from the text to a historical situation; writing cogently at length. Relates to analytical approach; coherent argument; precision in the handling of concepts and selection of evidence; relevance to the question; historical imagination; originality; precision; clarity and facility of writing.

§  Question Three  This section comprises one question and is worth 40/100 marks

  • Interpretation Exercise: Interpretative response to primary source. Relates to: careful and critical reading; historical imagination; originality; precision; clarity and facility of writing.

§  Question Four This section comprises one question and is worth 30/100 marks

  • This question is ONLY for History and Economics applicants, and is designed to test candidates' comprehension, writing and problem-solving skills. History and Economics applicants must answer Question Four INSTEAD OF Question Two.

§  Marking: the HAT will be marked anonymously in Oxford, according to a common scheme circulated to all markers.

When and where will the test take place?

The test will be sat on the morning of Wednesday 2nd November 2016, by all candidates applying to Oxford for History and its joint schools (Ancient and Modern History, History and Economics, History and English, History and Modern Languages, and History and Politics). Most UK candidates in full-time education will be able to take the test at their own schools or colleges. Mature candidates may take the test in Oxford or at a regional test centre of their own choosing. International candidates will normally be able to take the test in their own schools or similar institutions, but may need to contact a local test centre. The tests will be marked anonymously in Oxford and successful candidates will receive invitations to interview within three to four weeks.

How do candidates prepare for the HAT?

Since the HAT is aiming to test skills that candidates will be developing anyway, the best form of preparation is to advise students to get on with their normal work. One question in the paper will ask candidates to apply ideas or propositions from the texts to a historical situation that they know about, and they may therefore find it helpful to refresh their memory of the various topics they have studied in the last year or so. Even so, in answering this question, candidates will not be judged on the depth or detail of their knowledge, but on the skills listed in the formal specification. The test will not look easy – indeed, it will not be easy – but candidates are given plenty of time to read and re-read the texts, to think about them, and to plan their answers. Candidates should not worry, therefore, if the specimen paper looks difficult. It probably looks difficult to everyone else too. We hope that candidates will find the test interesting as well as tough.

Specimen and Past Papers; Sample HAT scripts


What if it is absolutely impossible to take the HAT at the scheduled time?

We hope that almost all candidates will be able to take the HAT at the scheduled time. If you think that it will be impossible for you to arrange to take it, please write in advance, stating your reasons, to the Organising Secretary for History, Faculty of History, George St., Oxford OX1 2RL (

Page last updated: 22/08/2016, at 16:54

Contact Us

There are a number of ways that you can contact us directly:

By post:

Faculty of History
George Street
Oxford OX1 2RL
United Kingdom

By telephone or fax:

Tel: +44 1865 615000
Fax: +44 1865 250704

Or by email:

For information on graduate admissions, contact:

For information on undergraduate admissions, contact: